訂購 Herman Yeung 數學天書詳情

2020年9月18日 星期五

生命簡史 古生物放置攻略 - 人類的進化

遺傳物質 Genetic material

遺傳物質是親代與子代之間傳遞遺傳信息的物質。

除一部分病毒的遺傳物是RNA外,其餘的病毒以及全部具典型細胞結構的生物的遺傳物都是DNA。

進化是指種群裡的遺傳性狀在世代之間的變化,性狀指是遺傳物質的表現。人類進化的實質是種群遺傳物質的改變。

Genetic material is the material that transmits genetic information between parents and offspring.

Except for some viruses whose genetic material is RNA, the genetic material of other viruses and all organisms with a typical cell structure are DNA.

Evolution refers to the change of genetic traits in a population between generations, and traits refer to the performance of genetic material.  The essence of human evolution is the change of population genetic material, 


昆明魚 Myllokunmingia

昆明魚是迄今已知的地球生命出現早期的最高等的脊椎動物,它有由軟骨構造的頭顱骨及骨骼。

昆明魚的發現,不僅將包括人類在內的整個脊椎動物演化史向前推進了5000萬年,而且改變並完善了脊椎動物早期演化理論。

Myllokunmingia is known to date as the highest vertebrate in the early stage of life on earth.  It has a skull and skeleton made of cartilage.

The discovery of Myllokunmingia has not only advanced the entire history of vertebrate evolution including humans by 50 million years, but also rewritten and perfected the theory of early vertebrate evolution.


提塔利克魚 Tiktaalik

提塔利克魚是最早擁有頸部的魚類,強狀的肋骨可以讓它們離開水域,讓它們在狩獵時擁有更多的自由,不論是在陸地上或是淺水中。

提塔利克魚擁有可以在堅硬地面支撐自身重量及呼吸空氣的構造,這是頭骨演化一個關鍵的改變,促使我們的遠祖可以適應陸地上的生活。

Tiktaalik is the first fish to have a neck.  The strong ribs allow them to leave the water and allow them to have more freedom when hunting, whether on land or in shallow water.

The Tiktaalik has a structure that can support its own weight and breathe air on a hard ground.  This is a key change in the evolution of the skull, allowing our distant ancestors to adapt to life on land.


始組單弓獸 Archaeothyris

始組單弓獸的體型較大,頜部強壯,且能張得比其他早期爬行動物還大,具有較大的犬齒,顯示它們是肉食性動物。

始組單弓獸是所有單弓動物的祖先,包括哺乳類。

The Archaeothyris was larger in size, had strong jaws, and could expand larger than other early reptiles, and had larger canine teeth, indicating that they were carnivorous animals.

The Archaeothyris is the ancestor of all single how animals, including mammals.


大帶齒獸 Megazostrodon

大帶齒獸長相酷似老鼠,大小如同鼬鼠,行為也類似鼬鼠,是最早的哺乳類。它是穴居動物,在夜間捕食。

大帶齒獸過著穴居的生活,擁有和人類一樣的膈,被認為是人類的祖先。

The Megazostrodon looks exactly like a mouse, is the size of a weasel, and behaves like a weasel.  It is the earliest mammal.  It is a burrowing animal and hunts at night.

The Megazostrodon lives a burrowing life, has the same diaphragm as humans, and is considered to be the ancestor of humans.


更猴 Plesiadapis

更猴是已知最早似靈長目的哺乳動物其中之一屬,外觀有點像松鼠。更猴仍保有爪,但和現代的靈長類動物相差很遠,這類動物有四支爪子,不能彎曲的那種,很不靈活。

有觀點認為更猴的發現給靈長類的進化過程帶來了新的發現,但也有觀點認為更猴形類群和現代靈長類不屬於一個隊伍。

The Piesiadapis is one of the earliest known genus of primate mammals and looks a bit like squirrels.  Plesiadapis still have claws, but they are very different from modern primates.  These animals have four claws, which cannot bend and are very inflexible.

Some believe that the discovery of Plesiadapis has brought new discoveries to the evolution of primates, but there are also opinions that the Plesiadapis-shaped groups and modern primates do not belong to the same team.


南方古猿 Australopithecus

南方古猿已經能直立行走,使用天然工具,生活方式可能為群體生活,共同尋找食物,共同防止其他猛禽野獸的攻擊。

南方古猿被認為是從猿到人轉變的第一階段,是整個人屬的祖先。

Australopithecus has been able to walk upright, use natural tools, and may live in groups, seek food together, and jointly prevent attacks from other raptors and beasts.

Australopithecus is considered to be the first stage of the transition from ape to man, and is the ancestor of the entire Homo genus. 


智人 Homo sapiens

智人是人屬下的唯一現存物種,大腦的發達與複雜化可能有利於聚群的社會生活,群居生活十分有利於以協作方式獲取獵物、採集食物和交流信息等,因而使智人在生存競爭中佔優勢。

智人分為早期智人和晚期智人,晚期智人在體質特徵上和現代人已沒有明顯差異,能精製石器和骨器,懂得繪畫、雕刻等藝術。

Homo sapiens is the only existing species in the genus Homo sapiens.  The development and complexity of the brain may be conducive to social life in groups.  Living in groups is very conducive to obtaining prey, collecting food and communicating information in a collaborative manner, thus.

Homo sapiens are divided into early Homo sapiens and late Homo sapiens.  The physical characteristics of the late Homo sapiens have no obvious differences from modern people.  They can refine stone and bone tools, and know the arts such as painting and carving.



資料來源︰生命簡史 古生物放置 遊戲的資料

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2020年8月31日 星期一

Herman Yeung 電子書

Calculus 手稿電子書︰(HK$199)

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2020年8月15日 星期六

生命簡史 古生物放置攻略 - 海生爬行動物

楯齒龍 Placodus

生存年代︰   2.5 2.3 億年前

體長︰            1 3

分佈區域︰    中生代海洋 Mesozoic Ocean

Order     盾齒龍目 Placodontia

楯齒龍用突出的前齒,將水底無脊椎動物的堅硬外殼拉扯出來,並用後方的平坦牙齒,將獵物外殼壓碎。

楯齒龍是陸地動物,但到海中尋找軟體動物、腕足動物和甲殼類作為食物。

Placodus used their protruding front teeth to pull out the hard shells of underwater invertebrates, and crushed the shells of prey with the flat teeth at the back.

Placodus is a land animal, but it goes to the sea to find molluscs, brachiopods and crustaceans as food.

 

幻龍 Nothosaurus

生存年代︰   2.3 2 億年前

體長︰            3

分佈區域︰    中生代海洋 Mesozoic Ocean

Order     幻龍目 Nothosauroidea

幻龍緩慢跟踪獵物,利用針狀牙齒的長頜部捕抓魚類與其他海中動物。

幻龍是半海生動物,它們可能過著類似現代海豹的生活。

Nothosaurus slowly follows its prey, using its long jaws with needle-like teeth to catch fish and other sea animals.

Nothosaurus are semi-sea animals, and they may live a life similar to modern seals.

 

海龍 Thalattosaurus

生存年代︰   2.3 2 億年前

體長︰            4

分佈區域︰    中生代海洋Mesozoic Ocean

Order    海龍目Thalattosauria

海龍類外表似大型蜥蝪,有長而側向平坦的尾巴,適合生存於海中環境。

海龍擁有大眼睛,可讓它們的深水中視力更好,而眼睛周圍有骨環,可防止眼睛在深水中遭巨大水壓壓碎。

Thalattosaurus resemble large lizards with long and laterally flat tails, which are suitable for living in the sea.

Thalattosaurus have big eyes, allowing them to have better vision in deep water, and there are bone rings around the eyes to prevent the eyes from being crushed by huge pressure in deep water.

 

海鱷 Pelagosaurus

生存年代︰   1.9 1.45 億年前

體長︰            7

分佈區域︰    中生代海洋Mesozoic Ocean

Order     海鱷亞目Thalattosuchia

海鱷性情兇猛,四肢演化成了鰭肢狀,尾巴的形狀像魚鰭,在海中的行動相當敏捷。

海鱷從其出現開始,就一直受到魚龍、上龍、滄龍等天敵的威脅,直至滅亡也沒能翻身。

Pelagosaurus has a fierce temperament.  Its limbs have evolved into flippers, and its tail is shaped like a fin, it moves very quickly in the sea.

Since its emergence, Pelagosaurus has been threatened by natural enemies such as Temnodontosaurus, Pliosaurus and Mosasauroidea, and has not been able to turn over till its extinction.

 

魚龍 Temnodontosaurus

生存年代︰   2.5 0.9 億年前

體長︰            223

分佈區域︰    中生代海洋Mesozoic Ocean

Order     魚龍目Lchthyosauria

魚龍的遊速可以達到每小時40公里,鯺狀的四肢可能被用來起穩定以及控制轉向的作用,魚龍的主食可能是魚類。

雖然魚龍的外表看似魚類,但它們並不屬於魚類。

The swimming speed of Temnodontosaurus can reach 40 kilometers per hour.  The fin-like limbs may be used to stabilize and control steering.  The staple food of ichthyosaurs may be fish.

Although Temnodontosaurus look like fish, they are not fish.

  

蛇頸龍 Plesiosaurus

生存年代︰   2 0.9 億年前

體長︰            320

分佈區域︰    中生代海洋Mesozoic Ocean

Order     蛇頸龍亞目 Plesiosauroidea

蛇頸龍以U形的嘴部、銳利的牙齒捕抓獵物,它們以兩對鰭腳推動身體,尾巴因為太短而不能推動身體前進。 在水中游泳時,頸部可能有控制制方向的功能。

蛇頸龍的頸椎骨基本不能活動,只能做極小弧度的擺動和升降,幾乎不能抬高脖子。

Plesiosaurus uses a U-shaped mouth and sharp teeth to catch prey.  They are two pairs of fins to push the body.  The tail is too short to push the body forward. 

When swimming in the water, the neck may have the function of controlling direction.

The cervical vertebrae of Plesiosaurus are basically unable to move, and can only swing and lift in a very small arc, and they can hardly raise the neck.

 

上龍 Pliosaurus

生存年代︰   2 0.7 億年前

體長︰            415

分佈區域︰    中生代海洋Mesozoic Ocean

Order     上龍亞目 Pliosauroidea

上龍特徵是短頸部、長頭部、體型大、呈流線型、行動快速且兇猛。

上龍類是肉食性動物,長而強壯的頜部有多排銳利的牙齒,可能獵食魚龍或蛇頸龍。

Pliosaurus is characterized by a short neck, a long head, a large body, a streamlined shape, fast action and fierceness.

Pliosaurus are carnivorous animals, with long and strong jaws with multiple sharp teeth, which may hunt Temnodontosaurus or Plesiosaurus.

   

滄龍 Mosasauroidea

生存年代︰   0.7 0.65 億年前

體長︰            315

分佈區域︰    中生代海洋Mesozoic Ocean

Family    滄龍超科 Mosasauroidea

滄龍有雙鉸鏈狀的頜部、頭顱骨,能將獵物整個吞下,身體形狀類似現代巨蜥,但更為修長、流線性。

滄龍類在白堊紀晚期的大海中迅速擴張,成為頂級掠食者,在很短的時間內完全取代了上龍的生態位並導致其完全滅絕。

Mosasauroidea has a double-hinged jaw and skull, which can swallow its prey whole.  Its body shape is similar to modern monitor lizards, but it is more slender and streamlined.

Mosasauroidea expanded rapidly in the sea in the late Cretaceous and became top predators, completely replacing the niche of Pliosaurus within a short period of time and leading to its complete extinction.


資料來源︰生命簡史 古生物放置 遊戲的資料

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2020年7月1日 星期三

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連結 Link:   數學天書 訂購表格及方法


連結 Link:   Herman Yeung 數學 (必修) Maths Core 的 YouTube 課程

連結 Link:   Herman Yeung Blog 主目錄



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2020年4月28日 星期二

Herman Yeung YouTube 免費筆記下載 之 Additional Maths 再現

1a. Mathematical Induction 數學歸納法 - note
1b. Mathematical Induction 數學歸納法 - Training
2a. Binomial Theorem 二項式定理 - note
2b. Binomial Theorem 二項式定理 - training 1
2c. Binomial Theorem 二項式定理 - training 2
3a. Quadratic Equation & Inequality 二次方程式及不等式 - note
3b. Quadratic Equation & Inequality 二次方程式及不等式 - training 1
3c. Quadratic Equation & Inequality 二次方程式及不等式 - training 2
4a. Trigonometry 三角學 - note 1
4b. Trigonometry 三角學 - training 1-1
4c. Trigonometry 三角學 - training 1-2
4d. Trigonometry 三角學 - training 1-3
4e. Trigonometry 三角學 - note 2
4f. Trigonometry 三角學 - training 2-1
5a. Straight line 直線 - note
5b. Straight line 直線 - training
6a. Circle 圓形 - note
6b. Circle 圓形 - training
7a. Locus 軌跡 - note
8a. Differentiation 微分 - note 1
8b. Differentiation 微分 - training 1
8c. Differentiation 微分 - note 2
9a. Integration 積分 - note
9b. Integration 積分 - training 1
9c. Integration 積分 - training 2
10a. Vector 向量 - note
10b. Vector 向量 - training



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Herman Yeung YouTube 免費筆記下載 之 Pure Maths 再現

1. Mathematical Induction 數學歸納法
2. Binomial Theorem 二項式定理
3. Polynomial 多項式
4. Inequality 不等式
5. Limit of sequence 序列極限
6. Matrix 矩陣
7. System of linear Equation 線性方程組
8. Conic Sections 圓錐曲線
9. Differentiation 微分
10. Integration 積分
11. Complex number 複數
12. Function 函數



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Herman Yeung YouTube 免費筆記下載 之 Form 3 Maths 中三數學

1.  Law of index 指數定律
2.  Probability 概率
3.  Rational & Irrational number 有理、無理數
4.  Statistics 統計學



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Herman Yeung YouTube 免費筆記下載 之 Chemistry 化學

               View        For Print
All :    (172 MB)     (988 MB)    Ch 00 - Ch 12
Google Play 圖書下載連結︰ https://play.google.com/store/books/details?id=LwyMDwAAQBAJ
Ch 00 :   (4 MB)     (23 MB)      Miscellaneous  雜項
Ch 01 :   (6 MB)     (34 MB)      Planet Earth  地球
Ch 02 :   (20 MB)   (115 MB)    Microscopic World I  微觀世界I
Ch 03 :   (16 MB)   (95 MB)      Metals  金屬
Ch 04 :   (20 MB)   (118 MB)    Acids and Bases  酸和鹽基
Ch 05 :   (33 MB)   (196 MB)    Fossil Fuels & Carbon Compounds  化石燃料和碳化合物
Ch 06 :   (9 MB)     (53 MB)      Microscopic World II  微觀世界II
Ch 07 :   (20 MB)   (119 MB)    Redox, Chem Cells & Electrolysis  氧化還原、化學電池和電解
Ch 08 :   (4 MB)     (26 MB)      Chemical Reactions and Energy  化學反應和能量
Ch 09 :   (4 MB)     (26 MB)      Rate of Reaction  反應速率
Ch 10 :   (2 MB)     (10 MB)      Chemical Equilibrium  化學平衡
Ch 11 :   (17 MB)   (98 MB)      Chemistry of Carbon Compounds  碳化合物的化學
Ch 12 :   (11 MB)   (68 MB)      Patterns in the Chemical World  化學世界中的規律



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Herman Yeung YouTube 免費筆記下載 之 Physics 物理

             View        For Print
All :      製作中                        Ch A - Ch E
Ch A :   (12 MB)   (64 MB)     Heat & Gases 熱和氣體
Ch B :   (16 MB)   (87 MB)     Force & Motion 力與運動                                      
Ch C :   (50 MB)   (267 MB)     Wave Motion 波動學   

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Herman Yeung YouTube 免費筆記下載 之 Economics 經濟

********************************

Temporary note for 2020 考生

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              View        For Print
All :      製作中                        Ch A - Ch J + Ch E1 - E2
Ch A :   製作中
Ch B :   製作中                                 
Ch C :   (38 MB)   (209 MB)     Market & Price 市場與價格 
Ch D :   製作中
Ch E :    製作中
Ch F :    製作中
Ch G :    製作中
Ch H :    製作中
Ch I :    製作中
Ch J :    製作中
Ch E1 :    製作中
Ch E2 :    製作中

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背 definition 的電子書 :
(中英對照版 - 230頁) (HK$19.90)
(純英文版 - 159頁) (HK$19.90)
(純中文版 - 159頁) (HK$19.90)

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Herman Yeung YouTube 免費筆記下載 之 BAFS 企會財

1.  企會財 BAFS (Core Part) Note
2.  企會財 BAFS (Elective IIB) Note



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Herman Yeung YouTube 免費筆記下載 之 大學數學

1.  University Probability 大學概率
2.  Calculus 微積分 - Shell Method 外殼法 






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Herman Yeung YouTube 免費筆記下載 之 數學 M2

歷屆試題 Past Paper (香港公共圖書館)

1.  Regular Course All-in-one Note (180 pages)
2.  TIPS Class (Algebra代數) All-in-one Note
3.  TIPS Class (Algebra代數) Free Mock Paper
4.  TIPS Class (Calculus微積分) All-in-one Note
5.  TIPS Class (Calculus微積分) Free Mock Paper
6.  M2 題目集 A (買實物版)
7.  M2 題目集 B (買實物版)




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Herman Yeung YouTube 免費筆記下載 之 數學 M1

歷屆試題 Past Paper (香港公共圖書館)

1.  Regular Course All-in-one Note (145 pages)
2.  TIPS Class (Calculus 微積分) All-in-one Note
3.  TIPS Class (Calculus 微積分) Free Mock Paper
4.  TIPS Class (Statistics 統計學) All-in-one Note
5.  TIPS Class (Statistics 統計學) Free Mock Paper



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歷屆試題 Past Paper (香港公共圖書館)

1.  一天衝刺課程 
2.  數學 Core Big Lemon Coke 課程 Lesson 1-4
3.  數學 Core 奪保其星 Lesson 1-4


4a.  Free Mock Paper Set 01 (內有中文版及英文版)    (Video解卷)
4b.  Free Mock Paper Set 02 (內有中文版及英文版)    (Video解卷)
4c.  Free Mock Paper Set 03 (內有中文版及英文版)    (Video解卷)
4d.  Free Mock Paper Set 04 (內有中文版及英文版)    (Video解卷)

5.  All-in-one 溫書筆記書仔
6.  數學天書 B 之 Supplementary Note
7.  數學天書 C 之 Supplementary Note
8.  數學天書 D 之 Supplementary Note (Probability 概率)  (Blog version)
9.  數學天書 D 之 Supplementary Note (nCr)  (Blog version)

(1)  數學一天衝刺課程




(2)  數學 Big Lemon Coke 課程




(4)  Free Mock Paper Set 01




(6)  數學天書 B 之 Supplementary Note




(7)  數學天書 C 之 Supplementary Note




(8) 數學天書 D 之 Supplementary Note (Probability 概率)




(9)  數學天書 D 之 Supplementary Note (nCr)



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2020年4月21日 星期二

Newspaper Cutting 031 - Negative $40 oil reflects panic - and U.S. crude market economic reality

Vocabulary : 
(1) panic = 恐慌 
(2) crude market = 原油市場 
(3) desperate = 絕望的 
(4) fled = 逃離 
(5) negative territory = 負數的區域 
(6) recognition = 承認 
(7) sap = to make someone weaker or take away strength or an important quality from someone, especially over a long period of time 
(8) massive glut of oil = 大量過剩的油 
(9) barrel = 桶 
(10) drain = 外流 
(11) hub = 樞紐 
(12) sell-off = 賣光 
(13) technicalities = 技術性 
(14) take possession of = 佔有 
(15) Cushing = 俄克拉荷馬州庫欣市 
 (16) unappetizing option = 唔開胃的選擇 
(17) the mad rush = 狂奔 
(18) unprecedented = 前所未有的 
(19) collapse = 崩潰 
(20) edged = 使銳利 
(21) was breached = 被違反 
(22) piled in = 堆積在 
(23) first Gulf War = 第一次波斯灣戰爭 
(24) market dislocations = 市場錯位 
(25) outweigh = 勝過 
(26) mandate = 授權 
(27) swiftly = 迅速地 
(28) nonetheless = 儘管如此 

###########################

Negative $40 oil reflects panic - and U.S. crude market economic reality - 21 Apr, 2020 

(Reuters) - Traders desperate to avoid owning oil fled the markets on Monday, sending crude futures into negative territory for the first time ever, in recognition that the coronavirus pandemic has sapped demand for fuel and there is not enough storage for the massive glut of oil present on U.S. soil. 

Investors sold the May futures contract due to expire on Tuesday in a series of waves. At one point the contract hit negative $40. When the trading stopped, crude oil had ended the day at a negative $37.63 a barrel, a decline of some 305%, or $55.90 a barrel. 

For as sudden as the day's declines were, it was weeks in the making. The coronavirus pandemic cut fuel demand worldwide by roughly 30% beginning in early March, but for several weeks, the supply of oil worldwide has continued to build. Even the recent deal by OPEC and other major oil-producing countries to reduce supply will not be fast enough, nor large enough, to drain the millions of barrels of unneeded crude present in the markets. 

That unwanted oil is instead going into storage, but in the United States, storage is filling much more quickly than anticipated. Cushing, Oklahoma, the tiny town of less than 10,000 people that serves as the main U.S. storage hub, was 70% full as of last week, and traders say it will be full within two weeks. 

That realization sparked Monday's sell-off in U.S. futures markets because of the technicalities of the West Texas Intermediate futures contract, which expires on Tuesday. When oil contracts expire, the holder has to take possession of 1,000 barrels of oil for every contract they own, delivered to Cushing. 

However, with Cushing filling up, that leaves traders with the unappetizing option of taking oil they do not want, or getting out of those positions. The mad rush for the door means there were few buyers, and the contract dropped from a normal price of $18 on Friday into unprecedented negative territory. 

"We saw a total collapse in the market. There was everybody selling it into the hole with no buyers," said Phil Flynn, senior market analyst at Price Futures Group. "They're going to have to drive down to a price where someone wants to buy it, and no one wants to buy it." 

For the first few hours of trading on Monday, the May oil futures steadily edged lower, widening the gap between that contract and the June contract, which, while weak, still ended the day at more than $20 a barrel. But with expiration on the way on Tuesday, the selling accelerated in the last two hours, with oil finally hitting negative territory roughly 20 minutes before the close of trading. 

(GRAPHIC: Oil contract gap: https://reut.rs/3eBfgPy) 

Once that level was breached, sellers piled in, sending the contract at one point below negative $40 a barrel before a slight rebound ended what will go down as the worst day since the West Texas Intermediate contract was introduced in 1983. 

"I’m 55 years old, and I worked on the trading floor in college. I’ve been through the first Gulf War, second Gulf War, World Trade Center, dot-com crisis, and nothing came close to this,” said Bob Yawger, director of energy futures at Mizuho in New York. "It could get worse. This situation that we’re in is that bad."

COULD GET WORSE 

Analysts say this type of market dislocations could recur in coming months because fuel supply will outweigh fuel demand for the foreseeable future. Worldwide oil consumption is roughly 100 million barrels a day, but consumption fell by 30% globally, or about 30 million bpd, beginning in early March. 

However, it took the Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries, Russia and other countries until early April to agree to cut supply by 9.7 million bpd. Other nations, like the United States and Canada, did not mandate cuts from private industry, but those companies are swiftly reducing output. 

"Activity is in free-fall in North America and is slowing down internationally," said Halliburton Co CEO Jeff Miller, on a company earnings call Monday. 

It will nonetheless take months before those cuts fall enough to come in-line with reduced demand - even if world economies rebound somewhat as people recover from the pandemic, which has killed more than 165,000 people worldwide. With storage soon to be completely full in the United States, crude will not have a place to go.  

Source : https://finance.yahoo.com/news/negative-40-oil-reflects-panic-013707193.html

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