訂購 Herman Yeung 數學天書詳情

2020年3月6日 星期五

生命簡史 古生物放置攻略 - 進化

寒武紀 (Cambrian)︰
(1) 藻類 (Algae) 
藻類是一類能進行產氧性光合作用的生物,常見的有綠藻和藍藻。
Algae are a kind of organisms that can carry out oxygen-producing photosynthesis.  The common ones are green algae and cyanobacteria.

(2) 有絲分裂 (Mitotic division)
有絲分裂是一種真核細胞分裂產生體細胞的過程。
Mitotic division is a process in which eukaryotic cells divide into somatic cells.

(3) 葉綠體 (Chloroplast)
葉綠體是進行光合作用的細胞器。
Chloroplast is an organelle for photosynthesis.

(4) 二氧化碳 (Carbon dioxide)
二氧化碳是大氣組成的一部分,是光合作用必需的原料。
Carbon dioxide is a part of the atmosphere and a necessary raw material for photosynthesis.

(5) 光合作用 (Photosynthesis)
光合作用是植物吸收光能,把二氧化碳和水合成為有機物和氧的過程。
Photosynthesis is the process by which plants absorb light energy and synthesize carbon dioxide and water into organic matter and oxygen.

奧陶紀 (Ordovician)︰
(1) 脊椎 (Vertebral)
脊柱保護脊髓,是生物進化的支柱。
The spine protects the spinal cord and is the backbone of biological evolution.

(2) 骨骼 (Skeleton)
骨骼是組成脊椎動物內骨骼的堅硬器官,功能是運動、支持和保護身體。
Bone is a hard organ that makes up the vertebrate bones, the function is to exercise, support and protect the body.

(3) 組織 (Tissue)︰
組織由許多形態相似的細胞及細胞間質所組成。
Tissue consists of many similar morphologically cells and interstitial cells.

(4) 肌肉 (Muscle)︰
肌肉收縮牽引骨骼而產生關節的運動。
Muscle contraction pulls the skeleton and produces joint movement.

(5) 游泳 (Swim)︰
游泳行為使許多生物體能夠從一個地方移動到另一個地方。
Swimming enables many organisms to move from one place to another.

(6) 捕食 (Predation)︰
捕食是指某種生物吃另一種生物。
Predator means that one creature eats another.

志留紀 (Silurian)︰
(1) 頜 (Jaw)︰
頜促進了運動和感覺等器官的發展,帶動了動物體制結構的全面進化。
The jaw promotes the development of organs such as motion and sensation, and promotes the overall evolution of animal system and structure.

(2) 鰭 (Fin)︰
鰭在魚類和某些其他水生動物中起著推進、平衡及導向的作用。
The fins act as propelling, balancing, and guiding in fish and certain other aquatic objects.

(3) 鰓 (Gill)︰
鰓是多數水生動物的呼吸器官,用來吸收溶解在水中的氧。
Gills are the respiratory organs of most aquatic animals and are used to absorb dissolved oxygen in water.

(4) 頜骨 (Maxilla)︰
頜骨的出現使脊推動物能夠主動、有效地捕食。
The appearance of maxilla enables vertebrates to hunt actively and efficiently.

(5) 撕咬 (Bite)︰
通過撕咬捕食獵物,能有效地完成能量的轉換。
Energy conversion can be accomplished effectively by biting and catching prey.

泥盆紀 (Devonian)︰
(1) 裸蕨植物 (Psilophyton)︰
裸蕨植物體型矮小,結構簡單,因無葉而得此名。
Psilophyton is short and simple.  It is named for its leaflessness.

(2) 擬根莖 (Periderm)︰
裸蕨植物無真正的根、莖、葉的分化,僅有地下生的擬根莖。
The bare fern plants have no true roots, stems and leaves, and only the underground rhizomes.

(3) 假根 (Rhizoid)︰
假根生於植物體的下面或基部,具有固著植物體和微弱的吸收功能。
Rhizoid is born under or at the base of the plant and has a fixed plant body and a weak absorption function.

(4) 維管組織 (Vascular tissue)︰
維管組織是由木質部和韌皮部組成的輪導水分和營養物質的植物組織。
Vascular tissue is a plant tissue consisting of xylem and phloem that transports water and nutrients.

(5) 維管系統 (Vascular tissue system)︰
維管系統使水分、礦物質和有機養料能夠在植物體內快速運輸和分配。
The vascular tissue system enables the rapid transport and distribution of moisture, minerals and organic nutrients in plants.

(6) 莖軸 (Caulom)︰
莖軸是原始維管植物最先出現的器官,並且能代行光合作用。
Caulom is the first organ of the original vascular plant and can be used for photosynthesis.

石炭紀 (Carboniferous)︰
(1) 卵生 (Oviparity)︰
卵生是指動物的受精卵在母體外獨立發育的過程。
Oviparity refers to the process in which the fertilized eggs of animals grow independently in vitro.

(2) 受精卵 (Zygote)︰
受精卵指的是精卵相會後形成的單細胞,這個過程就是受精的過程。
Zygote refers to the single cell formed after the sperm and egg meets.  This process is the process of fertilization.

(3) 獨立發育 (Grow independently)︰
卵生動物的受精卵在母體外進行獨立發育。
The zygote of oviparous animals grow independently outside the maternal body.

(4) 兩棲 (Amphibian)︰
兩棲的意思是能在水中與陸上生活或活動。
Amphibious means being able to live in water and on land both.

(5) 變溫 (Poikilotherm)︰
變溫動物的體內沒有自身調節體溫的機制,俗稱冷血動物。
Poikilotherm does not have its own mechanism of regulating body temperature, commonly known as a cold-blooded animal.

二疊紀 (Permian)︰
(1) 真蕨植物 (Pteridophyta)︰
真蕨植物具明顯的根、莖、葉和複雜的維管系統的分化。
Pteridophyta has distinct differentiation of roots, stems, leaves and complex vascular systems.

(2) 葉 (Leaf)︰
葉的功能是進行光合作用合成有機物,並有蒸騰作用。
The function of the leaves is to synthesize organic matter for photosynthesis and to have transpiration.

(3) 羽狀複葉 (Pteridophyta)︰
羽狀複葉是共同的葉柄或葉軸上著生若干小葉的葉。
A pinnate compound leaf is leaf-bearing several leaflets on a common petiole or axis.

(4) 根 (Root)︰
根是植物的營養器官,負責吸收土壤裡面的水分及溶解其中的無機鹽。
The root is the vegetative organ of the plant, responsible for absorbing the moisture in the soil and dissolving the inorganic salts therein.

(5) 莖 (Stems)︰
莖具有輸導營養物質和水分以及支持葉、花和果實在一定空間的作用。
Stems have the function of transporting nutrients and water and supporting leaves, flowers and fruits in a certain space.

(6) 疏導系統 (Conducting system)︰
維管束是由不同組織組成的束狀結構,在植物體中構成複雜的輸導系統。
Vascular bundles are bundles of different tissues, which constitute complex transport systems in plants.

疊紀 (Triassic)︰
(1) 裸子植物 (Gymnospermae)︰
裸子植物為多年生木本植物,大多為單軸分枝的高大喬木。
Gymnospermae is potential woody plants, mostly uniaxially branched tall trees.

(2) 單軸分枝 (Monopodial branching)︰
單軸分枝是指主葉形成一個直立、粗壯的主幹,而各級側枝較不發達。
Monopodial branching refers to the formation of an erect and strong main stem from the main stem, while the lateral branches at all levels are less developed.

(3) 種子 (Seed)︰
種子由胚珠經過傳粉受精形成,是種子植物持有的繁殖器官。
Seeds are formed by pollination and fertilization of ovules and are unique reproductive organs of seed plants.

(4) 胚珠 (Ovule)︰
胚珠為子房內的卵形小體,是種子的前體,為受精後發育成種子的結構。
The ovule is an ovate body in the ovary and is a precursor of the seed.  It is a structure that develops into a seed after fertilization.

(5) 木質部 (Xylem)︰
木質部負責將根吸收的水分及溶解於水里面的離子往上運輸。
The xylem is responsible for transporting the water absorbed by the roots and the ions dissolved in the water.

(6) 管胞 (Tracheid)︰
管胞是裸子植物的主要輸水機構。
The tracheid is the main water delivery mechanism for gymnosperms.

侏羅紀早期 (Early Jurassic)︰
(1) 肺 (Lung)︰
肺作為呼吸器官使四足動物能夠長久在陸地上生存。
The lungs act as a respiratory organ to enable the quadruped to survive on land for a long time.

(2) 呼吸 (Respiration)︰
呼吸是指機體與外界環境之間氣體交換的過程。
Respiration is the process of gas exchange between the body and the environment.

(3) 氣體交換 (Gas exchange)︰
氣體交換指吸入的氧氣和呼出的二氧化碳在體內進行交換的過程。
Gas exchange refers to the exchange of oxygen inhaled and carbon dioxide exhaled in the body.

(4) 肺泡 (Alveolus)︰
肺泡是肺部氣體交換的主要部位。
The alveoli are the main sites of air exchange in the lungs.

(5) 氣囊 (Air sac)︰
氣囊是鳥類的一種呼吸器官,部分蜥腳類恐龍的體內也有氣囊。
Air sacs were a type of breathing organ in birds, and some sauropod dinosaurs also had air sacs in their bodies.

侏羅紀晚期 (Late Jurassic)︰
(1) 四肢 (Four Limbs)︰
四肢來源於鰭,這標誌著生命走上陸地。
Four limbs are derived from the fins, which marks the life walk to the land.

(2) 鱗片 (Scale armour)︰
鱗片是一些動物皮膚表面衍生的硬薄片狀結構,有保護作用。
Scales armour are hard, lamellar structures derived from the surface of the skin of some animals and have protective effects.

(3) 爬行 (Crawl)︰
爬行動物體溫不恒定,是真正適應陸棲生活的變溫脊椎動物。
Reptiles are not constant in body temperature, they are the variable temperature vertebrates that really adapt to terrestrial life.

(4) 羊膜 (Aminon)︰
羊膜是單層上皮細胞互相連接構成的薄膜。
Amnion is a membrane in which monolayer epithelial cells are connected to each other.

(5) 冬眠 (Hibernation)︰
冬眠是動物對冬季外界不良環境條件的一種適應。
Hibernation is an adaptation of animals to the adverse external environmental conditions in winter.

白堊紀早期 (Early Cretaceous)︰
(1) 鳥臀 (Ornithischia)︰
鳥臀目是一類有喙的草食性恐龍,與鳥類相似的骨盆結構。
Ornithischia is a kind of herbivorous dinosaur with beak, which has a pelvic structure similar to birds.

(2) 骨盆四射型 (Pelvic four-shot shape)︰
鳥臀目恐龍的腰帶,骨盆從側面看是四射型,腸骨前都大大擴張。
The waist and pelvic of the Ornithischia looks like four-shot shape from the side, and the intestinal bones are greatly expanded both front and back.

(3) 四足步態 (Four gait)︰
鳥臀類恐龍除一些早期類群外,都是四足行走,並且全都是吃植物的。
Except for some early groups, ornithisaurs walked on all fours and ate plants.

(4) 防禦結構 (Defensive structure)︰
為了抵禦肉食性恐龍的攻擊,鳥臀類恐龍發育出了多種多樣的防禦結構。
Bird-buttock dinosaurs developed a variety of defensive structures to defend themselves against the attacks of carnivorous dinosaurs.

(5) 植食性 (Herbivory)︰
植食性是指動物以植物為食的現象。
Herbivory refers to the phenomenon in which animals feed on plants.

(6) 喙 (Beak)︰
大多數鳥臀類恐龍都有喙,方便撕裂植物。
Most bird-buttock dinosaurs have beaks that allow them to rip through plants.

白堊紀中期 (Middle Cretaceous)︰
(1) 蜥臀 (Saurischia)︰
蜥臀恐龍的腰帶從側面看是三射形,結構與蜥蜴類相似。
The Waist of the Saurischia looks as triradial shap form the side, which has a pelvic structure similar to lizard.

(2) 骨盆三射型 (Pelvic three-shot shape)︰
蜥臀目恐龍的腰帶,骨盆從側面看是三射型,髂骨背向延伸。
The waist and pelvic of the Scuischia looks like three-shot shape from the side, and the humerus extends backward.

(3) 獸腳 (Theropoda)︰
獸腳亞目大多數都是肉食性恐龍,兩足行走,趾端長有銳利的爪子。
Theropods were mostly carnivorous dinosaurs that walked on two legs and had sharp claws on their toes.

(4) 蜥腳 (Sauropoda)
蜥腳亞目四足行走的素食性巨型恐龍,牙齒呈小匙狀,頸及尾均長。
A large, vegetarian, four-footed sauropod with spoonlike teeth and a long neck and tail.

(5) 肉食性 (Carnivory)︰
肉食性是指動物以肉類為食的現象。
Carnivory refers to the phenomenon that animals feed on meat.

白堊紀晚期 (Late Cretaceous)
(1) 被子植物 (Angiospermae)︰
被子植物種類最多、分佈最廣、適應性最強、也叫開花植物。
Angiospermae have the largest variety, the widest distribution, and the strongest adaptability, also known as flowering plants.

(2) 雙受精 (Double fertilization)︰
被子植物雙受精後由合子發育成胚,中央細胞發育成胚乳。
After the double fertilization of the angiosperm, the zygote develops into an embryo, and the central cell develops into an endosperm.

(3) 雌蕊 (Gynoecium)︰
雌蕊的柱頭粘附花粉,花粉穿過雌蕊到達子房與卵子結合,並發育成種子。
After pollen grains land on the stigma, a pollen tube grows from the pollen grain, through the style, and into the ovary.  After fertilization occurs, each ovule develops into a seed.

(4) 雄蕊 (Androecium)︰
雄蕊是被子植物花的雄性生殖器,其作用是產生花粉。
Androecium is the male genital organ of angiosperm flowers, which can produce pollen.

(5) 花冠 (Corolla)︰
花冠在花開放以前保護花的內部結構,花開放以後招引昆蟲前來傳粉。
The corolla protects the internal structure of the flower before it opens and invites insects to pollinate after it opens.

(6) 花萼 (Calyx)︰
花萼包在花蕾外面,起保護花蕾的作用。
Calyx wraps outside the bud to protect it.

第三紀 (Tertiary)︰
(1) 哺乳 (Mammal)︰
哺乳動物是全身被毛、運動快速、恆溫胎生、體內有膈的脊椎動物。
Mammals are vertebrates with hairs all over the body, fast movement, constant temperature and diaphragm.

(2) 恆溫 (Thermostatic)︰
恆溫動物能在環境溫度變化的情況下保持體溫的相對穩定。
Thermostatic animals can keep their body temperature relatively stable when the ambient temperature changes.

(3) 胎生 (Viviparous)︰
胎生是動物的受精卵在雌性動物體內的子宮裡發育成熟並生產的過程。
Viviparous is the process by which a zygote of an animal matures and is produced in the uterus of a female animal.

(4) 神經系統 (Nervous system)︰
神經系統是機體內對生理功能活動的調節起主導作用的系統。
The nervous system is a system that plays a leading role in regulating physiological activities in the body.

(5) 適應環境 (Environmentalaspect)︰
當中生代末地殼運動加劇,環境發生重大改變時,哺乳動物顯示了很強的競爭能力。
When the crustal movement intensified at the end of the Mesozoic and the environment changed significantly, mammals showed a strong ability to compete.


資料來源︰生命簡史 古生物放置 遊戲的資料


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2020年3月4日 星期三

開徵銷售稅

財政司話想開徵銷售稅
先唔評論是否可行、對香港好唔好、技術點做的問題
我只係想講,如果您係中五或以下
可以睇清楚佢是否真係推行
因為真係推行的話,香港的會計行業需求會上升唔少
可能大家揀 jupas 時,可多考慮呢方面的學系
而中六的朋友,相信您派埋大學,財政司都未必有具體方案
所以唔建議大家嚮一個懷疑狀態下轉報會計學科
一下又有商家佬大力反對而取消
大家就可能撲個空

另一方面,讀經濟的同學都要理解開徵銷售稅的好處、壞處
DSE經濟係會考的
銷售稅係一種累退的稅 (regressive tax)
因為收入高和收入低的人,買相同數量同樣的貨品都是要繳交相同的稅款
所以稅款除收入,高收入的會有一個較低的稅率
這個會引發貧富更不均的情況,富者愈富、貧者愈貧
(當然,有部分地方的銷售稅不會於必需品 (necessity)上徵收
可能只係向奢侈品 (luxury) 徵收,如果真的話,
高收入的要抽稅、低收入的變相唔洗抽稅,貧富不均的問題可以倒轉頭改善)

而另一個關於 普及銷售稅 (General sales tax) 的好處是
可能將香港的 稅基 (Tax base) 加大
香港一般的稅收係︰利得稅 (profit tax)、薪俸稅 (salary tax)、物業稅 (property tax)
由於香港有個人免稅額,所以香港有唔少人都無需交以上三種的稅款
(如果一個人無攪生意,無物業出租、打工的收入低過免稅額,就三種稅都唔洗交)
而呢三種的稅款亦會跟隨經濟週期而大幅波動
當經濟不景時,大多數公司都少盈利甚至無盈利,
大多數打工的全年收入都少於免稅額,
大多數出租物業的價格都下跌,
三種稅收就會大幅度下降,以及要交稅的人會好少好少 (稅基非常窄)
稅基一旦好窄,您加稅都無辦法大力增加政府收入
100個人只係3個交稅,您抄佢家都無咩肉食
(當然,政府仲有一個好大的收入來源是賣地
但當經濟不景,賣地收入亦會下降)
故開徵銷售稅就可以改善呢個因經濟週期而導致政府收入下降的問題
因為開徵後 (假設大多數市場上的物品和服務都要徵稅)
基本上市民一消費,或多或少都會進貢一些給庫房
由於被間接徵稅的市民眾多,我地會呢種叫擴闊稅基 (Tax base)
雖然經濟不景時,市民消費意欲都會下降,間接銷售稅的收入都會下降
但跌幅一定遠比直接稅 (利得稅 (profit tax)、薪俸稅 (salary tax)、物業稅 (property tax)) 為低。

呢個方法有d似我之前好書有介紹過的一本書的內容
佢話古時有一個皇帝,因為打扙想徵收更多的稅收
第一個主意係加稅,每家每戶都要加稅,稅收自然多
但有一個大臣就話唔太可行,因為當時有好多人民係隱居
即政府都唔知佢地的存在,所以您加稅佢地無感覺
因為您都搵佢唔到
所以大臣就建議不如將 "鹽" 國營左佢
只有政府才可以賣 "鹽"
由於人類係一定要食 "鹽"
隱居的都要食,只要國營左 "鹽",再將 "鹽" 輕輕抬價
收入就會更豐富
呢個都係攞到擴闊稅基的效果
當然佢個方法不是直接徵稅
而係用有D似國企的方法為國家賺錢
只不過國企會有些特權

好覺得無論咩方案都好
政府就一定係想財政穩健
市民就一定係唔洗交稅
呢個矛盾就留有空間俾班政客中間搵政治本錢
但唔該你班政客唔好再搵年輕人做馬前卒
你班政客唔滿意個政府施政就自己去絕食吧

Herman Yeung

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2020年2月13日 星期四

HKDSE Biology 生物

Compulsory Part 必修部分
1.       Cells and Molecules of Life
           a.       Molecules of Life                                                                       
           b.       Cellular organization                                                                 
           c.       Prokaryotic & Eukaryotic cells                                               
           d.       levels of body organization                                                               
           e.       the light microscope                                                                 
           f.        Movement of substances across membrane                
           g.       Cell cycle and division                                                              
           h.       Cellular energetics : metabolism                                                    
           i.        Cellular energetics : photosynthesis                                  
           j.        Cellular energetics : respiration                                           
           細胞與生命分子
           a.       生命分子
           b.       細胞組織
           c.       原核細胞和真核細胞
           d.       生物體的組織層次
           e.       光顯微鏡
           f.        物質穿越細胞膜的活動
           g.       細胞週期和分裂
           h.       細胞能量學 : 代謝作用
           i.        細胞能量學 : 光合作用
           j.        細胞能量學 : 呼吸作用

2.       Genetics and Evolution
           a.       Basic genetics
           b.       Molecular genetics
           c.       Biotechnology
           d.       Biodiversity and evolution – origins of life
           e.       Biodiversity and evolution – evidence of evolution
           f.        Biodiversity and evolution – importance of genetic variations in evolution
           遺傳與進化
           a.       基礎遺傳學
           b.       分子遺傳學
           c.       生物工程
           d.       生物多樣性和進化 生命的起源
           e.       生物多樣性和進化 進化的證據
           f.        生物多樣性和進化 遺傳變異於進化過程中的重要性

3.       Organisms and Environment
           a.       Essential life processes in plants – nutrition in plants
           b.       Essential life processes in plants – gas exchange in plants
           c.       Essential life processes in plants – transpiration
           d.       Essential life processes in plants – transport in flowering plants
           e.       Essential life processes in plants – support in flowering plants
           f.        Essential life processes in animals – nutrition in humans
           g.       Essential life processes in animals – gas exchange in humans
           h.       Essential life processes in animals – transport in humans
           i.        Reproduction, growth and development – cell division
           j         Reproduction, growth and development – asexual reproduction
           k.       Reproduction, growth and development – sexual reproduction in flowering plants
           l.        Reproduction, growth and development – sexual reproduction in humans
           m.     Reproduction, growth and development – growth and development
           n.       Interacting with the environment – basic coordinating system
           o.       Interacting with the environment – light as stimulus : the Human eye
           p.       Interacting with the environment – light as stimulus : Phototropic response in plants
           q.       Interacting with the environment – sound as stimulus : the Human ear
           r.        Interacting with the environment – nervous coordination in Humans
           s.       Interacting with the environment – hormonal coordination in Humans
           t.        Interacting with the environment – movement
           u.       Interacting with the environment – homeostasis
           v.       Biodiversity
           w.      Ecosystems
           生物與環境
           a.       植物維持生命的活動 植物的營養作用
           b.       植物維持生命的活動 植物的氣體交換
           c.       植物維持生命的活動 蒸騰作用
           d.       植物維持生命的活動 有花植物體內物質的轉運
           e.       植物維持生命的活動 有花植物的支持作用
           f.        動物維持生命的活動 人的營養
           g.       動物維持生命的活動 人類的氣體交換
           h.       動物維持生命的活動 人體內物質的轉運
           i.        生殖、生長和發育 細胞分裂
           j.        生殖、生長和發育 無性生殖      
k.       生殖、生長和發育 有花植物的有性生殖
l.        生殖、生長和發育 人類的有性生殖
m.     生殖、生長和發育 生長與發育
n.       協調與反應 協調系統的基本結構
o.       協調與反應 光作為刺激︰人的眼晴
p.       協調與反應 光作為刺激︰植物的向光反應
q.       協調與反應 聲音作為刺激︰人的耳朵
r.        協調與反應 人類的神經協調
s.       協調與反應 人類的激素協調
t.        協調與反應 運動
u.       協調與反應 體內平衡
           v.       生物多樣性
           w.      生態系


4.       Health and Diseases
           a.       Personal health
           b.       Diseases
           c.       Body defence mechanisms
           健康與疾病
           a.       個人健康
           b.       疾病
           c.       身體的防禦機制


Elective Part (2 out of 4)
5.       Human Physiology: Regulation and Control
           a.       Regulation of water content (osmoregulation)
           b.       Regulation of body temperature
           c.       Regulation of gas content in blood
           d.       Hormonal control of reproductive cycle
           人體生理學︰調節與控制
           a.       水份調節 (滲透調節)
           b.       體溫調節
           c.       血液內氣體成分的調節
           d.       生殖週期的激素控制

6.       Applied Ecology
           a.       Human impact on the environment
           b.       Pollution control
           c.       Conservation
           d.       Global issues
           應用生態學
           a.       人類對環境的影響
           b.       污染控制
           c.       保育
           d.       全球性議題

7.       Microorganisms and Humans
           a.       Microbiology
           b.       Use of microorganisms
           c.       Microbial genetics
           d.       Harmful effects of microorganisms
           微生物與人類
           a.       微生物學
           b.       微生物的科用
           c.       微生物遺傳學
           d.       微生物的害處

8.       Biotechnology
           a.       Techniques in modern biotechnology
           b.       Applications in biotechnology
           c.       Bioethics
           生物工程
           a.       現代生物工程的技術
           b.       生物工程的應用
           c.       生物倫理學

課外資料︰ 

1.  生命簡史 古生物放置攻略