訂購 Herman Yeung 數學天書詳情

2020年2月13日 星期四

生命簡史 古生物放置攻略 - 各個時期的大事件

前寒武紀 (Precambrian)
從地球誕生的近40億年間,大量細菌、藍藻等原核生物出現,這段時間真核生物一直沒有出現,所以被稱為隱生宙。
Nearly 4 billion years after the birth of the Earth, a large number of prokaryotes such as bacteria and cyanobacteria appeared.
During this time, eukaryotes have not appeared, so they are called Cryptozoic.

(1). 埃迪卡拉紀︰又稱震旦紀,一般指6.35 - 5.41億年前,最古老的動物遺跡可追溯至十億年前,但最早的動物化石出現於埃迪卡拉紀。
Ediacaran : also known as Sinian, generally refers to 635 - 541 million years ago.  The oldest animal remains can be traced back to one billion years ago, but the earliest animal fossils appeared in Ediacaran.

(2). 原核生物︰經過近四十億年的進化,一直生存在隱生宙中的原核生,才在5.7億年前顯生宙的寒武紀時期進化成真核生物,這就是地球生物進化的歷史。
Prokaryote : After nearly four billion years of evolution the prokaryotes that have been living in the Cryptozoic have only evolved into eukaryotes in the Phanerozoic Cambrian period 570 million years ago, which is the history of the evolution of the earth's.

(3). 代表生物︰古細菌 - 常生活於熱泉水、缺氧湖底、鹽水湖等極端環境中。古核細胞遺傳的信息量較小,是世界上最早的生物。
Representative organism : Archaea - often live in extreme environments such as hot spring water, anoxic lake bottom, and lagoon.  Paleokaryocyte has less genetic information and is the earliest organism in the world.

寒武紀 (Cambrian)
寒武紀是顯生宙的開始,距今約5.42億年前 - 4.85億年前。 寒武紀是現代生物的開始階段,是地球上現代生命開始出現、發展的時期。
The Cambrian is the beginning of the Phanerozoic, about 542 million years ago - 485 million years ago.  The Cambrian is the beginning stage of modern living creature and it is the period when modern life on earth begins to appear and develop.

(1). 超大陸與洪水︰在寒武紀,具有硬殼的動物第一次大量地出現,許多大陸都被淺海所氾濫,超大陸岡瓦那在泛非褶皺帶上組合而成當時最大的大陸。
Supercontinent and flood : During the Cambrian period, hard-shelled animals first appeared in large numbers, and many continents were flooded by shallow seas.
Supercontinent Gondwana formed the largest continent in the Pan-African fold belt at that time.

(2). 生命大爆發︰6億年前,絕大多數無脊椎動物們在很短時間內出現了,帶殼、具骨骼的海洋無脊椎動物趨向繁榮
Cambrian explosion : 600 million years ago, the vast majority of invertebrates appeared in a very short period of time, with shelled, skeletal marine invertebrates tending to prosper.

(3). 代表生物︰三葉蟲 - 寒武紀時期最繁盛的是節肢動物三葉蟲,故寒武紀又稱「三葉蟲時代」。三葉蟲沒有遇到有力的競爭對手,成為寒武紀海洋王國中的統治者。
Representative organism : Trilobite - The most prosperous in the Cambrian period was the arthropod trilobite, so the Cambrian is also known as the "trilobite era".  Trilobites did not encounter strong competitors and became the rulers of the Cambrian marine kingdom.

奧陶紀 (Ordovician)
奧陶紀是距今4.85億年~4.43億年前的一段時期,是歷史上海侵最廣泛的時期之一,奧陶紀末期曾發生過一次規模較大的冰期。
Ordovician is a period from 485 million to 443 million years ago.  It was one of the most extensive transgressions in history.  There was a large-scale glacial period in the end of Ordovician.

(1). 第一次生物滅絕︰奧陶紀晚期,一束來自6000光年以外的伽馬射線擊中了地球,致命的射線、飢荒、毒氣以及冰期構成了第一次物種大滅絕 -- 伽馬射線暴擊中的地球事件,造成了地球上的60%的物種減絕。
The first extinction : In the late Ordovician, a beam of gamma rays from 6,000 light-years away struck the Earth.  The deadly rays, famine, poison gas and glacial period constituted the first mass extinction of species -- The event of gamma rays hitting the earth resulted in the extinction of 60% of the species on the earth.

(2). 海浸時代︰奧陶紀是地史上大陸地區遭受應泛海浸的時代,是火山活動和地殼運動比較劇烈的時代,也是氣候分異、冰川發育的時代。
Transgression era : Ordovician is an era in which continental areas suffered extensive transgression, volcanic activity and crustal movement were more intense, and climate differentiation and glacier development were also in progress.

(3). 代表生物︰無頜魚類 - 最早的魚類是無頜類。它們沒有上下頜,嘴很寛,頭邊緣長著奇怪的骨板。
Representative organism : Agnatha - The earliest fish was the jawless.  They have no upper and lower jaws and their mouths are wide.  There are strange bone plates on the edge of the head.

志留紀 (Silurian)
志留紀是距今4.4億年~4.1億年前的一段時期,早志留紀到處形成海浸,中志留紀海侵達到頂峰,晚志留紀各地有不同程度的海退和陸地上升,表現了一個巨大的海侵旋回。
Silurian is a period from 440 million to 410 million years ago.  Transgression occurred everywhere in Early Silurian, reached its peak in Middle Silurian, and retreated and uplifted land in different degrees in Late Silurian, showing a huge transgression cycle.

(1). 筆石時代︰志留紀被稱為筆石的時代,它們是志留紀海洋漂浮生態域中最引人注目的一類生物。筆石分佈廣,演化快,同一物種可以在世界上許多洲發現。
Graptolite Era : Silurian is known as the age of graptolites, which are the most striking types of creatures in the Silurian marine floating ecosystem.  Graptolites are widely distributed and evolve rapidly, and the same species can be found in many continents of the world.

(2). 植物登陸︰由於劇烈的造山運動,海洋面積減小,大陸面積擴大,作為陸生高等植物的先驅,低等維管束植物開始出現並逐漸佔領陸地。
Plant landing : Due to the violent orogenic movement, the ocean area has decreased and the continent has expanded.  As a pioneer of terrestrial higher plants, low vascular plants began to appear and gradually occupied the land.

(3). 代表生物︰有頜魚類 - 脊椎動物中,有頜的盾皮魚類和棘魚類出現是脊椎動物演化史上的重大事件,魚類開始征服水域,為泥盆紀魚類大發展創造了條件。
Representative organism : Jaw fish - Among vertebrates, the emergence of jawed shield fish and spiny fish is an important event in the evolution history of vertebrates.  Fish began to conquer the waters, which created conditions for the development of Devonian fishes.

泥盆紀 (Devonian)
泥盆紀是距今4.1億年~3.5億年前的一段時期,泥盆紀晚期,兩棲動物出現。
Devonian is a period from 410 million to 350 million years ago.  Amphibians appeared in the late Devonian.

(1). 第二次生物滅絕︰泥盆紀晚期,300多億立方千米的岩漿、極端氣候、數百萬年的長夜、大量有毒氣體、缺氧的海水及冰期,構成了超級地幔柱滅絕事件,海洋生物遭到重創,82%的海洋物種滅絕。
The second extinction : In the late Devonian period, more than 30 billion cubic kilometers of magma, extreme climate, millions of years of long nights, a large number of toxic gases, anoxic sea water and glacial period constituted the super-mantle plume extinction event.  Marine life was seriously damaged and 82% of marine species were extinct.

(2). 魚類時代︰脊椎動物進入飛躍發展時期,各種魚類空前繁盛,有頜類、甲冑魚數量和種類增多,現代魚類 -- 硬骨魚開始發展。 因此泥盆紀常被稱為「魚類時代」。
Fish Era : Vertebrates have entered a period of rapid development, and all kinds of fishes are flourishing unprecedentedly.  The number and species of jawfishs and ostracoderms have increased.  Modern fishes -- bony fish, have begun to develop.  
Therefore, the Devonian is often referred to as the "Fish Era".

(3). 代表生物︰鄧氏魚 - 鄧氏魚的咬合力能夠達到5000千克,被稱為是霸王龍出現前史前咬合力最巨大的史前生物、巨齒鯊先前咬合力最大的史前魚類。
Representative organism : Vertebrate - The bite force of Dunkleosteus can reach 5,000 kilograms.  It was the prehistoric creature with the greatest bite force before Tyrannosaurus Rex appeared and the prehistoric fish with the greatest bite force before the emergence of Megalodon.

石炭紀 (Carboniferous)
石炭紀是距今3.55億年~2.95億年前的一段時期,石炭紀陸生生物空前發展,當時氣候溫暖、濕潤,出現了大規模的森林,給煤的形成創造了有利條件。
Carboniferous is a period from 355 million to 295 million years ago.  Carboniferous terrestrial organisms developed unprecedentedly.  At that time, the climate was warm and humid, and large-scale forests appeared, which created favorable conditions for the formation of coal.

(1). 燃煤事件︰石炭紀晚期,植物的枯枝形成了一層厚達30米的煤炭,地幔岩漿活動劇烈,產生高溫,煤炭在高溫下燃燒,有毒的氣體、高溫構成了造成46%的物種大滅絕 -- 石炭紀燃煤事件。
Coal burning event : In the late Carboniferous, the withered branches of plants formed a layer of coal up to 30 meters thick.  Magmatic activity in the mantle was intense, producing high temperatures, coal burning at high temperatures.  Toxic gases and high temperatures constitute the Carboniferous coal-burning event that caused the extinction of 46% species.

(2). 巨蟲時代︰石炭紀大氣含氧量達到35%,非常適合節肢動物繁衍生息,因而孕育了一批巨蟲。如人頭般大小的巨型蜘蛛,約3米長的巨型蜈蚣,翼展近1米的巨型蜻蜓等。
Giant Era: Carboniferous atmospheric oxygen content reached 35%, very suitable for the reproduction of arthropods, thus breeding a large number of giant insects.  Giant spiders the size of human heads, giant centipedes about 3 meters long, giant dragnflies with wingspan of nearly 1 meter, etc.

(3). 代表生物︰普莫諾蠍 - 石炭紀時期生活在陸地上的肺蠍,全長可達70厘米,肺蠍是可怕的殺手,主要捕捉其他節肢動物作為食物。
Representative organism: Pulmonoscorpius kirktonensis - Lung scorpions lived on land during Carboniferous Period, up to 70 centimeters in length.  Lung scorpions were terrible killers, mainly catching other arthropods as food.

二疊紀 (Permian)
二疊紀是距今2.99億年~2.5億年前的一段時期,陸地面積的擴大,海洋範圍的縮小,自然地理環境的變化,預示著生物發展史上一個新時期的到來。
The Permian period was a period from 299 million ago to 250 million years ago.  The expansion of land area, the shrinking of the ocean range, and the changes in the natural geographical environment indicate the arrival of a new period in the history of biological development.

(1). 第三次生物滅絕︰二疊紀晚期,20000立千米的碎啱、有毒氣體、70度的高溫、數萬年的酸雨,40萬年的長夜等構成了西伯利亞暗色岩滅絕事件,是地球有史以來最嚴重的災難,它滅絕了98%的生物。
The third extinction : In the late Permian period, 20,000 cubic kilometers of broken rocks, toxic gases, 70 degrees of high temperature, tens of thousands of years of acid rain and 400,000 years of long nights resulted in extinction of Siberian dark rock, the most serious disaster in the history of the earth, it extinct 98% of the creatures.

(2). 盤古大陸︰2.5億年前,地球上的大陸互相毗鄰,合併形成了名為「盤古大陸」的超大陸,盤古大陸最後分裂成了南方的岡瓦那大陸和北方的勞亞大陸。
Pangea : 250 million years ago, the continents on the earth were adjacent to each other and merged to form a supercontinent named 'Pangea', pangea eventually split into the southern Gondwana continent and the northern Laura continent.

(3). 代表生物︰裸蕨植物 - 二疊紀早期的植物以真蕨為主,晚期代之以較耐旱的裸子植物。
Representative organism : Pteridophyta - In the early Permian period, most plants were filicophytina, then they were replaced by the more drought-tolerant gymnosperms in the late period.

三疊紀 (Triassic)
三疊紀是距今2.5億年~2億年前的一段時期,它位於二疊紀和侏羅紀之間,三疊紀的開始和結束各以一次滅絕事件為標誌。
Triassic is a period from 250 million to 200 million years ago.  It lies between Permian and Jurassic.  The beginning and end of Triassic are both marked by one extinction event.

(1). 第四次生物滅絕︰三疊紀晚期,滾燙的蒸汽、1800立方千米岩漿、有毒氣體、極端氣候、數萬年的酸雨等構成了中大西洋岩漿區滅絕事件,造成 70% 的物種滅絕,還造成盤古大陸分裂。
The fourth extinction : Late Triassic, hot steam, 1800 cubic kilometers of magma, toxic gases, extreme weather, tens of thousands of years of acid rain constitute the extinction of the Mid-Atlantic magma region, causing 70% of species to extinction, and also caused the Pangea to split.

(2). 大陸分裂︰三疊紀間共有一塊大陸,被稱為泛古陸,即岡瓦納古陸。 到三疊紀中期,泛古陸開始出現分裂的前兆,在北美洲、歐洲中部和西部、非洲的西北部均出現了裂痕。
Continent division : There was only one continent during the Triassic period, which was called Pangea and the Gondwana.  In the middle of the Triassic, Pangea was beginning to show signs of division, and cracks appeared in North America, Central and Western Europe, and northwest Africa.

(3). 代表生物︰裸子植物 - 裸子植物自三疊紀起迅速發展起來,到了中三疊紀植物才開始逐漸繁盛,晚三疊紀時,裸子植物真正成了大陸植物的主要統治者。
Representative organism :Gymnospermae - The gymnosperms developed rapidly since the Triassic, and plants began to flourish in the middle Triassic.  In the Late Triassic, gymnosperms became the main rulers of mainland plants.

侏羅紀 (Jurassic)
侏羅紀是距今1.99億年~1.45億年前的一段時期,侏羅紀是中生代的第二個紀,開始於三疊紀-侏羅紀滅絕事件。
The Jurassic period was a period from 1.9 billion to 145 million years ago.  The Jurassic period was the second period of the Mesozoic era and began in the Triassic-Jurassic extinction.

(1). 空中生物︰具有皮質翅膀的翼龍是空中的優勢生物,早期的鳥類也出現,最著名的就是始祖鳥,空中生物與地面生物也會產生演化。
Aerial organisms : The pterosaurs with cortical wings were the dominant creatures in the air.  Early birds also appeared.  The most famous is the archaeopteryx.  The aerial creatures and terrestrial creatures also evolved.

(2). 恐龍時代︰侏羅紀是恐龍的鼎盛時期,恐龍已迅速成為地球的統治者,各類恐龍濟濟一堂,構成一幅千姿百態的龍的世界。
Era of dinosaurs : The Jurassic period was the heyday of dinosaurs.  The dinosaurs quickly became the rulers of the earth.  All kinds of dinosaurs came together to form a world of various dinosaurs.

(3). 代表生物︰雙脊龍 - 生活於早侏羅紀,曾多次出現在大眾文化中,最著名的是在電影<<侏羅記公園>>中被描述為會噴毒液的恐龍,但沒有證據可以顯示雙脊龍有這種行為。
Representative organism : Dilophosaurus - lived in the early Jurassic and has appeared in popular culture many times.  The most famous one is described as the dinosaur that sprays venom in the movie "Jurassic Park", but there is no evidence to show that they used to behave like this. 

白堊紀 (Cretaceous)
白堊紀是距今1.45億年~6600萬年前的一段時期,大陸被海洋分開,地球變得溫暖、乾旱。 恐龍仍然統治著陸地,翼龍在天空中滑翔,巨大的海生爬行動物統治著淺海。
The Cretaceous Period was a period from 145 million ago to 66 million years ago, when the continents were separated by the oceans and earth became warm and dry.  Dinosaurs still dominate landing sites, pterosaurs glide in the sky, and giant marine reptiles dominate shallow seas.

(1). 第五次生物滅絕︰白堊紀晚期,一顆巨大的隕石撞擊地球,2.1 萬立方公里的物質進入了大氣中,地球表面溫度迅速降低,植物枯萎死亡,造成了大量生物滅絕,長達1.6億年之久的恐龍時代終結。
The fifth extinction : In the late Cretaceous, a huge meteorite hit the earth, 21,000 cubic kilometers of material entered the atmosphere.  The surface temperature of the earth rapidly decreased, the plants withered and died, causing a large number of extinctions, which ended the 160 million-year-long dinosaur era.

(2). 板塊運動︰板塊運動出現了大量的海底山脈,進而造成全球性的海平面上升。南美洲與非洲大陸之間的裂谷張開形成南大西洋,北大西洋裂谷位於格陸蘭和北美東側。
Plate movement : Plate movement has resulted in a large number of submarine mountains, which in turn caused global sea level rise.  The rift between South America and the African continent expanded to form the South Atlantic, and the North Atlantic rift lies in Greenland and the east of North America.

(3). 代表生物︰迅猛龍 - 生活在晚白惡紀時期,在電影<侏羅紀公園>中,迅猛龍覆蓋著鱗片,但之後研究發現大部分的手盜龍類身體應該覆蓋著羽毛。
Representative Organism : Velociraptor - lived in the Late Cretaceous period.  In the movie Jurassic Park, they are covered with scales.  But later studies found that most of the body of the Maniraptora should be covered with feathers.

第三紀-古近紀 Tertiary - Paleogene
古近紀是距今6600萬年~2300萬年前的一段時期,古近紀是哺乳動物迅速發展的時期。
Paleogene is a period from 66 million to 23 million years ago.  The Paleogene is a period of rapid development of mammals.

(1). 極熱事件︰極熱事件是地球最快的、強度最大的一次全球變暖事件,導致了大量物種急劇滅絕。
Extreme heat event : Extremely hot event is the fastest and most intense global warming event on earth, resulting in the rapid extinction of a large number of species.

(2). 哺乳動物︰古近紀動物界的基本特點是哺乳動物的迅速輻射演化。 除了適應陸地生活的多種方式外,還出現了天空飛翔的蝙蝠類和重新適應海中生活的鯨類。
Mammal : The basic feature of the Paleogene animal world is the rapid radiation evolution of mammals.  In addition to the various ways of adapting to land life, there was also bats flying in the sky and whales re-adapting to life in the sea.

(3). 代表生物︰鬣齒獸 - 外形很像鬣狗,但力量要比現今的獅子強大得多,它的雙頜具有每平方英尺1000牛的驚人咬力,牙齒和頜骨的結構類似一把大剪刀,可以迅速致獵物於死地。
Representative organism : Hyaenodon - looks like hyena, but are much stronger than the lions.  Their jaws have an astonishing bite of 1,000 cows per square foot.  The teeth and jaws are similar in structure to a large pair of scissors, which can kill its prey quickly.

第三紀-新近紀 Tertiary - Neogene
新近紀是距今2300萬年~260萬年前的一段時期,新近紀生物界的面貌與現代更為接近,發生過大規模冰川活動,是哺乳動物和被子植物高度發展的時代,人類在這個時代出現。
Neogene is a period from 23 million to 2.6 million years ago.  The Neogene biosphere is closer to modern times.  Large-scale glacial activities occurred.  It is an era of high development of mammals and angiosperms.  Human beings appeared in this era.

(1). 喜馬拉雅山︰在地殼運動方面,到了上新世,許多古近紀時形成的新山系繼續隆起,山勢基本與現代相近,如歐洲的阿爾卑斯山、亞洲的喜馬拉雅山、南美的安底斯山等等。
Himalayas : In terms of crustal movement, during the Pilocene, many of the Neogenes formed during the Paleogene continued to rise and the mountains were basically similar to modern times, such as the European Alps, the Asian Himalayas, and the South American Andes.

(2). 類人動物︰不論是海生動物還是陸地動物,上新世的動物已經相當現代化了,陸地動物還有些原始,最早的類人的動物在上新世末出現。
Humanoid : Whether it is marine or terrestrial animals, the Pilocene animals had been quite modern, terrestrial animals were still primitive, and the earliest humanoid animals appeared at the end of the Pilocene.

(3). 代表生物︰劍齒虎 - 是遠古長有可怕的匕首狀上犬齒的最大貓科動物,上犬齒最長可達120毫米,是當時最具優勢的大型食肉動物。
Representative organism : Machairodus - is the largest Felidae with terrible dagger-like upper canine teeth in ancient times.  The upper canine teeth can reach up to 120 mm in length.  It was the most dominant large carnivore at that time.

資料來源︰生命簡史 古生物放置 遊戲的資料





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