訂購 Herman Yeung 數學天書詳情

2020年2月13日 星期四

生命簡史 古生物放置攻略 - 不同生物的詳細資料

古細菌 (Archaea)
古細菌常生活於熱泉水、缺氧湖底、鹽水湖等極端環境中,古核細胞遺傳的信息量較小,是世界上最早的生物。
Archaea often live in extreme environments such as hot springs, the bottom of anoxic lakes, and salt lakes.
The genetic information of ancient nucleated cells is small, and it is the earliest organism in the world. 

草履蟲 (Paramecium)︰
草履蟲是一種身體很小,圓筒形的原生動物,它只由一個細胞構成,是單細胞動物,雌雄同體。
Paramecium is a small, cylindrical protozoa.  It consists of only one cell and is a single-celled hermaphrodites animals.

夜光蟲 (Noctiluca)︰
夜光蟲是一類生活在海水中的原生動物,它們在夜間由於海水波動的刺激能發光,因而得名。
Noctiluca is a type of protozoa that lives in the sea.  They are named after their light at night by the stimuli of the sea wave.

斯普里格蠕蟲 (Spriggina)︰
斯普里格蠕蟲是埃迪卡拉生物群的一種生物,其兩側的體節呈滑移對稱,這些體節被稱為異構體節。
The Spriggina is a organism of the Ediacara biome, with the body segments on both sides being slip-symmetrical.  These segments are called isomer nodes.

海口魚 (Haikouichthys)︰
海口魚是一種無頜的魚形動物,頭部有六到九片鰓,有明顯的背鰭,是已知最原始的脊椎動物。
The Haikouichthys is a fish-shaped animal with no jaws.  It has six to nine gills and obvious dorsal fins.  It is the most primitive known vertebrate.

滇氏蟲 (Diania)︰
滇氏蟲外形酷似仙人掌,兩側具有10對帶刺的腿肢,可在海底行走,它揭示了葉足動物如何向節肢動物演化。
The Diania is like a cactus.  It has 10 pairs of barbed legs on both sides and can walk in the sea.  It reveals how the lobopodia animals evolved into arthropods.

擬油櫛蟲 (Olenoides)︰
擬油櫛蟲隸屬三葉蟲綱,三葉蟲作為眾多生物的代表,揭開了地球走進生物多樣化的序幕。
The Olenoides belongs to the trilobite class.  As the representation of many creatures, trilobite unveiled the prelude of the earth's entry into biodiversity.

奇蝦 (Anomalocaridids)︰
奇蝦頭部長著一對巨型複眼、一對巨型前肢,體型遠遠大於當時的其它物種,是寒武紀最龐大的「頂級捕食者」。
The Anomalocaridids has a pair of giant compound eyes and a pair of giant forelimbs.  They are much larger than other species at that time.  It's the largest "top predators" of the Cambrian.

阿蘭達甲魚 (Prionotolepis)︰
阿蘭達甲魚可能是濾食性動物,擁有流線型的身體,外部包覆硬甲,沒有鰭,靠尾巴左右擺動前進。
The Prionotolepis may be a filter feeder.  It has a streamlined body covered by a hard armor, no fins, and swings forward by the tail.

巨型羽翅鱟 (Megalograptus)︰
巨型羽翅鱟在海底漫遊並尋找食物,是已知第一種從水中移居到陸地,並知道如何蛻殼的動物。
Megalograptus roams the sea to look for food.  It is the first known animal that migrates from the water to the land and knows how to clam shells.

海神盔蝦 (Aegirocassis)︰
海神盔蝦大約是當時所有生物的2倍大,但別被它的大小嚇到,因為它只是個吃浮游生物的溫柔海神。
The Aegirocassis is about twice as large as all creatures at the time, but don't be scared by its size, because it is just a gentle sea god eating plankton.

直殼鸚鵡螺 (Nautilus)︰
直殼鸚鵡螺擁有巨大的身體、靈活的腕足、強大的嘴以及發達的眼睛,是繼奇蝦之後的第二個世界霸主。
The Nautilus has a huge body, a flexible wrist, a strong mouth and well-developed eyes.  It is the second world hegemon after the shrimp.

全頜魚 (Entelognathus)︰
全頜魚既具有盾皮魚類的骨片,又具有硬骨魚類的頜骨,是最早擁有現代頜骨的生物,揭示了頜骨的起源。
The Entelognathus has both the bones of the placodermi fish and the jaw bones of the bony fish.  It is the earliest creature with modern jaw bones, revealing the origin of the jaw bone.

麒麟魚 (Bothriolepis)︰
麒麟魚頭部有點像海豚,前端有前伸的扁平吻突,口和鼻孔都位於腹面,軀體呈長長的箱形,底部平坦。
The Bothriolepis is a bit like a dolphin.  The front end has a flat snout, and the mouth and nostrils are at the ventral surface.  The body has a long box shape with a flat bottom.

鬼魚 (Guiyu oneiros)︰
鬼魚長著鯊魚一樣的刺,頰部骨骼排列像青魚一樣,腦袋有前後關節,代表著人類遙遠祖先的一個分支。
The Guiyu oneiros has a thorn like the shark, the cheek bones are arranged like a herring, and the head has front and rear joints, representing a branch of the distant ancestors of mankind.

廣翅鱟 (Eurypterida)︰
廣翅鱟生活在河口和三角洲附近,是可怕的食肉群居動物,全身覆蓋著厚厚的外骨骼形成的鎧甲。
The Eurypterida lives near the estuary and delta.  It is a terrible carnivorous social animal, covered with thick exoskeleton.

布龍度蝎子 (Brontoscorpio anglicus)︰
布龍度蝎子像現今蝎子,但體型較大,也有更大的複眼,它們可以離開水面到達陸地,是一種恐佈的掠食者。
Brontoscorpio anglicus are like today's scorpions, but they are larger and have larger compound eyes.  They can leave the water and reach the land.  It is a horrible predator.

小肢魚 (Microbrachius dicki)︰
小肢魚頭大身小,雄性腹面軀體甲殼末端有一對側枝,是一種雄性外生殖器,用來將精子輪送到雌性體內。
The Microbrachius dicki has large head and small body.  The male ventral body has a pair of lateral branches at the end of the carapace.  It is a male external genitalia used to transport sperm to the female body.

母親魚 (Materpiscis)︰
母親魚游動緩慢,以硬觳的無脊椎動物為食,是具備性行為、能夠「生孩子」的最早例證,是已知最早的胎生脊椎動物。
The Materpiscis swims slowly and feeds on hard-shelled invertebrates.  It is the earliest example of sexual behavior and the ability to "bring a child".  It is the earliest known viviparous vertebrate.

東生魚 (Tungsenia)︰
東生魚的下頜呈現出典型的四足動物特徵,兼具原始有頜類與典型陸生脊椎動物的特徵,是已知最早的基幹四足動物。
The lower jaw of the Tungsenia exhibits the characteristics of a typical quadruped animal.  It has both characteristics of primitive jaws and typical terrestrial vertebrates.  It is the earliest known backbone quadruped.

斑鱗魚 (Psarolepis)︰
斑鱗魚兼具肉鰭魚類和輻鰭魚類的特徵,頭顱前部骨骼和頰部骨骼都與輻鰭魚類吻合,可能是最原始的肉鰭魚類。
The scallop fish is characterized by both fsarcopterygii and actinopterygii, and the anterior and buccal bones of the skull are consistent with the actinopterygii.  It may be the most primitive fsarcopterygii.

鄧氏魚 (Dunkleosteus)︰
鄧氏魚處於食物鏈頂端,重量可達1.1噸,被視為泥盆紀最大的獵食者,是泥盆紀出現過的最大的食肉硬骨魚類。
At the top of the food chain, the Dunkleosteus weighs 1.1 tons and is considered as the largest predator of the Devonian.  It is the largest carnivorous bony fish that has appeared in the Devonian.

中突珠 (Mesothelae)︰
中突蛛有人頭般大小,但它們並未能進入食物鏈的上層,反而成為了其他巨型昆蟲的食物。
The Mesothelae are as big as a human head, but they fail to enter the upper layers of the food chain and become food for other giant insects.

始祖單弓獸 (Archaeothyris)︰
始祖單弓獸的體型較大,頜部強壯,且能張得比其他早期爬行動物還大,具有較大的犬齒,顯示它們是肉食性動物。
The Archaeothyris has large size and strong jaws.  They can be enlarged larger than other early reptiles.  It has large canines, indicating that they are carnivores.

普莫諾蠍 (Pulmonoscorpius kirktonensis)︰
普莫諾蠍又稱為肺蠍,是一種巨型蝎子,是可怕的殺手,主要捕捉其他節肢動物作為食物。
Pulmonoscorpius kirktonensis, also known as the lung scorpion, is a giant scorpion, a terrible killer that primarily captures other arthropods as food.

巨脈蜻蜓 (Meganeura monyi)︰
巨脈蜻蜓的外貌與現代蜻蜓接近,翅膀展開有75厘米,是地球上出現過的最大的昆蟲,以其他昆蟲為食。
The appearance of the Meganeura monyi is close to that of the modern dragonfly.  The unfolded wings are 75 centimeters.  It is the largest insect that has appeared on the earth and feeds on other insects.

節胸蜈蚣 (Arthropleura)︰
節胸蜈蚣是陸地上最大型的無脊椎動物,行走迅速,在陸地上只有少數的天敵,沒有強化的口器,以植物碎屑為食。
The Arthropleura is the largest invertebrate on land.  It walks quickly.  There are only a few natural enemies on the land.  It has no fortified mouthparts and feeds on plant debris.

原水蠍螈︰
原水蠍螈生活在沼澤環境,是頂尖的掠食者,可以在陸地及水中覓食,它們用肺呼吸,可以走到更深的森林中。

冠鱷獸︰
冠鱷獸是雜食性獸孔目動物,體型與成年公牛一樣大,並擁有數個大型角狀物,可能是用來作為視覺展示物。

偉鱷獸︰
偉鱷獸是肉食性動物,以其他脊推動物為食,有銳利的門齒以及犬齒,相當適合咬獵物。

基龍︰
基龍具備蜥蝪或者鱷類的匍匐而行的四肢構造與爬行姿態,作為草食動物,他們會成群來抵抗肉食動物。

異齒龍︰
異齒龍是大型頂級掠食動物,有切割用的牙齒與銳利的犬齒,它的牙齒最後發展成現代哺乳類的不同功能牙齒。

杯鼻龍︰
杯鼻龍的體型巨大,但頭部小,身體呈大水桶狀,重達2噸,四肢粗壯,腳掌扁平,具有大型趾爪。

麗齒龍︰
麗齒龍是首次長有犬齒的動物,生活於沙漠與針葉林中,奔跑時速超過 10 千米,是當時陸地上最強大的掠食者之一。

始盜龍︰
始盜龍可能已知恐龍中最原始的一種,也是食草蜥腳類恐龍的祖先之一,可能是雜食恐龍。

始奔龍︰
始奔龍是一種小型兩足雜食動物,牙齒呈葉子形狀,脛骨比股骨長,行動迅速,是已知最早的鳥臀目恐龍之一。

南十字龍︰
南十字龍是已知最古老的恐龍之一,能將較小的獵物,沿著小而往後彎曲的牙齒,往喉嚨後方推動。

黑水龍︰
黑水龍是一種原蜥腳下目恐龍,重 75 千克,是已知最早的恐龍之一,板龍和它們有親緣關係。

埃雷拉龍︰
埃雷拉龍是速度相當快的兩足肉食性恐龍,是最古老的恐龍之一,它證明了恐龍來源於同一個祖先。

哥斯拉龍︰
哥斯拉龍是最早的一種主要的獸腳亞目恐龍,它們的體型相對較小,但可能是當時北美洲最大的掠食者。

板龍︰
板龍是一種原蜥腳下目恐龍,是最早的大型蜥腳類動物之一,牙齒適合吃植物,偶爾以小動物為食,依靠後腿行走。

小盾龍︰
小盾龍體型較小,用兩足行走,身上覆蓋著幾百塊骨質鱗甲用來防禦,是最早的裝甲恐龍之一,是劍龍和甲龍的視先。

虛形龍︰
虛形龍是已知最早的恐龍之一,皮膚上長著鱗片,長有銳利的鋸齒狀牙齒,居住在流域附近,單獨或成小群獵食。

怪嘴龍︰
怪嘴龍是最早的甲龍之一,骨盆上覆蓋著一層厚骨板,背上有短的骨刺,嘴巴前部有7顆牙齒,吃低矮的植物。

美扭椎龍︰
美扭椎龍有像鱷魚一樣的狹窄的頜,從不遠離水,它沿著海岸線,在淺湖和小島四周捕獵,覓食海洋生物。

雙脊龍︰
雙脊龍是一種體型較輕的獸腳亞目恐龍,雄性雙脊龍可能會上下點頭來炫耀冠飾、吸引異性或威嚇敵人。

斑龍︰
斑龍是一種大型的二足肉食動物,它們可以攻擊最大型的蜥腳類恐龍,有強壯的趾爪和鋒利的牙齒捕殺獵物。

冰脊龍︰
冰脊龍是首例在南極洲發現的肉食性恐龍,頭部有奇異冠狀物,重5000千克,是侏羅紀早期獸腳亞目中最重的恐龍。

細顎龍︰
細顎龍具有敏銳的目光,捕獵能力很強,可以跑得很快,並且能夠突然加速去捕捉跑的最快的小動物。

近蜥龍︰
近蜥龍是小型、最早的蜥腳類恐龍,體重只有32千克,只吃地面上的植物,走路很慢,奔跑速度不及肉食動物。

橡樹龍︰
橡樹龍是一種食草性恐龍,體格輕巧,與禽龍有親緣關係,唯一的防禦武器就是速度,可能是禽龍類直系袓先的近親。

釘狀龍︰
釘狀龍脖子和背上長著成對的骨板,臂部和尾巴上有成對的尖刺,受到威脅時會以後腿為支點轉圈,將尾巴甩向敵人。

角鼻龍︰
角鼻龍鼻子末端的角在成年後才長出來,只是角太小,只能用來嚇唬對手或敵人,更多用強壯的前臂將對手推到在地。

劍龍︰
劍龍是一種裝甲恐龍,背部有17塊高高的骨質板,尾巴上有4根尖刺,骨板用於炫耀、保持身體涼爽以及防衛。

異特龍︰
異特龍的頭骨很大,頜肌發達,能捕殺劍龍、鳥腳下目恐龍,甚至大型蜥腳下目恐龍,是一種龐大凶猛的肉食性恐龍。

圓頂龍︰
圓頂龍是一種大型植食恐龍,專門吃堅硬的、纖維狀的植物,用粗大的19厘米長的牙齒咀嚼樹葉,可能嗅覺敏銳。

尾羽龍︰
尾羽龍混合了爬行動物和鳥類的特徵,可以高速奔跑,雖然前肢和尾巴上有長長的羽毛,但依然不足以飛行。

帝龍︰
帝龍是一個小型帶羽毛的獵手,但它們不能飛,帝龍身上的羽毛是用來保暖的,它是霸王龍家族的早期成員。

鸚鵡嘴龍︰
鸚鵡嘴龍的嘴與鸚鵡相似,牙齒可以切碎植物,但無法咀嚼,尾巴上有長達16厘米的剛毛。

加斯頓龍︰
加斯頓龍的骨盆上方有一個骨盾,背上有大而尖的骨刺,尾巴上有一排小的朝向側面的骨刺,用盔甲擊退掠食者。

猶他盜龍︰
猶他盜龍是一體型巨大的馳龍,腳上有23厘米長的趾爪,行動很快,能抓住比它們體型小的任何動物。

烏爾禾龍︰
烏爾禾龍的尾巴末端有4根尖刺,脊骨上長著一排骨板,行動遲緩,體型龐大,無法奔跑,可能是最後一批劍龍之一。

重爪龍︰
重爪龍在海岸線附近生活,用細長的嘴巴將魚類等獵物從水中叼出來,有64顆鋒利的牙齒,能咬住身體滑溜的獵物。

阿馬加龍︰
阿馬加龍的背部有兩排平行的叫「神經棘」的棘刺,可能是用來吸引異性、警告掠食者或幫助身體保持涼爽。

棱齒龍︰
棱齒龍吃低矮的植物,喜歡嫩枝和根莖,用嘴剪斷嫩枝,再用葉子形狀的牙齒咀嚼,它們還可能是飛毛腿。

原角龍 (Protoceratops)︰
原角龍有一個發育良好的頭盾,頭盾上沒有角,有像鸚鵡一樣的喙,能切斷植物,剪刀似的牙齒能把食物切碎。
The Protoceratops has a well-developed head shield without horn, a parrot-like cockroach that can cut plants, and scissors-like teeth can chop the food.

似鵜鶘龍 (Pelecanimimus)︰
似鵜鶘龍最突出的特徵之一是頸部下方的皮膚皺褶,這是一個儲存食物的嚢,和鵜鶘的嚢相似。
One of the most prominent features of the Pelecanimimus is the skin folds beneath the neck, a sac that stores food, similar to the sac of pelecanidae.

恐爪龍 (Deinonychus)︰
恐爪龍體型不大,卻是可怕的掠食者,它們腳上第二根腳趾長著鋒利的、像鐮刀一樣的長達12厘米的爪子。
The Deinonychus are small, but they are horrible predators.  The second toe on their feet has a sharp, 12-cm-long claw like a sickle.

龍王龍 (Dracorex)︰
龍王龍的頭上有尖刺和結節,平坦的顱骨顯示出可能長成圓頂狀的跡象,它不是一個獨立的種類,而是年幼的厚頭龍。
Dracorex has spikes and nodules on his head.  The flat skull shows signs of a dome-shaped appearance.  It is not an independent species,but a young Pachycephalosaurus.

翼龍 (Pteranodon)︰
翼龍是種會飛的爬行動物,它們不是恐龍,也許會有皮毛,但是不會有羽毛,能夠扇動它們的翅膀飛翔很長的距離。
The Pteranodons are flying reptiles.  They are not dinosaurs.  They may have fur, but they will not have features.  They can fan their wings and fly for a long distance.

鯊齒龍 (Carcharodontosaurus)
鯊齒龍行動迅速、牙齒鋒利,以蜥腳類恐龍和其他大型植食動物為食。牙齒呈三角形,看起來像大白鯊的牙齒。
The Carcharodontosaurus moves quickly and has sharp teeth, feeding on sauropods and other large herbivores.  The teeth are triangular and look like the teeth of a great white shark.

巨獸龍 (Giganotosaurs)︰
巨獸龍是身軀最龐大的獸腳亞目恐龍,頭骨約2米長,它和鯊齒龍、霸王龍在競爭 "有史以來最大的掠食恐龍" 的稱號。
The Giganotosaurus has the largest body in theropod dinosaurs. The skull is about 2 meters long.  It competes with the carcharodontosaurus and the tyrannosaurus in the title of "the largest predatory dinosaur ever".

冥河龍 (Stygimoloch)︰
冥河龍體型和習性很像野山羊,頭部的圓頂可以抵受猛烈的衝撞,周圍的角刺則可用來相互碰撞,充當禦敵的武器。
The shape and habits of the Stygimoloch are similar to wild goats.  The dome of the head can withstand violent collisions, and the surrounding horns can be used to collide with each other and serve as weapons for the enemy.

迅猛龍 (Velociraptor)︰
迅猛龍是一種體型小、行動迅捷的掠食者,腳上有致命的鐮刀形狀的趾爪,大腦較大,這說明它們是最聰明的恐龍之一。
The Velociraptor is a small, fast-moving predator with deadly sickle-shaped toe claws on its feet.  They have large brains, which means they are one of the smartest dinosaurs.

甲龍 (Ankylosaurus)︰
甲龍的頭骨覆蓋著盔甲,它們的奔跑速度不及肉食恐龍,但是它們就像是一輛重型坦克,很難被撞倒。
The skulls of the Ankylosaurus are covered with armor.  They run at less than carnivorous dinosaurs, but they are like a heavy tank and can hardly be knocked down.

食肉牛龍 (Carnotaurus)︰
食肉牛龍眼睛上方有兩隻短而粗的角,頭顱骨小而厚實,下頜脆弱,牙齒長而細,可能無法一口咬死獵物。
There are two short, thick horns above the eyes of the Carnotaurus.  The skull is small and thick, the jaw is fragile, and the teeth are long and thin.  It may not be able to kill the prey by one bite.

三角龍 (Triceratops)︰
三角龍是最後一批出現在地球上恐龍,用頭上巨大而鋒利的角抵禦掠食者的攻擊,眼睛上方的兩個角龍長到1米多。
The Triceratops is the last group of dinosaurs that appeared on Earth.  They used a huge, sharp horn on their heads to resist the attack of predators.  The two horns above the eyes can grow to more than a meter.

副櫛龍 (Parasaurolophus)︰
副櫛龍用頭上長而中空的冠飾,發出低頻聲音,在很遠的地方也能聽見,吼叫時空氣進入鼻孔,經過空心管進入喉嚨。
The Parasaurolophus uses a long, hallow crown on the head to emit low-frequency sounds, which can be heard from far away.  When howling, the air enters the nostrils and goes to the throat by the hallow tube.

棘龍 (Spinosaurus)︰
棘龍背部有一個「帆」,能幫助身體降溫,棘龍長18米,重20多噸,可能是體型最大的肉食動物。
There is a "sail" on the back of the Spinosaurus, which can help to cool down the body.  The spinosaurus is 18 meters long and weighs more than 20 tons.  It may be the largest carnivorous animal.

霸王龍 (Tyrannosaurus)︰
霸王龍有著敏銳的視力、有力的頜和強壯的腿,是最著名的肉食恐龍,也是一種兇猛的掠食者。
With its keen eyesight, powerful jaws and strong legs.  Tyrannosaurus is the most famous carnivorous dinosaur and a ferocious predator.

強齒袋鼠 (Ekaltadeta)︰
強齒袋鼠是一種牙齒特別強壯的食物袋鼠,它們性情兇暴,很可能是晚期肉食性袋鼠的共同祖先。
The Ekaltadeta is a carnivorous kangaroo with particularly strong teeth.  They are violent and are likely to be the common ancestors of late carnivorous kangaroos.

南方古猿 (Australopithecus)︰
南方古猿已經直立行走,使用天然工具,生活方式可能為群體生活,共同尋找食物,共同防止其他猛禽野獸的攻擊。
Australopithecus have been able to walk upright and use natural tools.  Lifestyle may be group life.  Find food together, and jointly prevent attacking from other raptors.

鬣齒獸 (Hyaenodon)︰
鬣齒獸外形很像鬣狗,但力量要比現在的獅子強大得多,頭大腿長,嗅覺敏銳,奔跑迅捷,即使面對劍齒虎也能占得上風。
The shape of the Hyaenodon is like a hyena, but the strength is much stronger than the current lion, the head is long, the sense of smell is sharp.  It runs fast, even if facing the Machairodus, it can get the upper hand.

劍齒虎 (Machairodus)︰






資料來源︰生命簡史 古生物放置 遊戲的資料


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